Thus, in modern pharmacy, drugs include substances of plant, animal or synthetic origin that have pharmacological activity and are intended for the production and manufacture of dosage forms, as well as diagnostics and other auxiliary preparations.
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Already in ancient times, people tried to save their lives using various natural medicinal substances. Most often, these were plant extracts, but preparations were also used that were obtained from raw meat, yeast and animal waste. The first scientists instinctively felt that in many living organisms there are substances that can help in the fight against diseases, but only with the development of chemistry did people become convinced that the therapeutic effect of such substances lies in the selective effect of certain chemical compounds on the body.
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Important milestones in historyand the creation of medicines was the work of Avicenna, Paracelsus, Galen, Hahnemann, and many other pharmacists and pharmacologists. Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915), German bacteriologist and chemist, is considered one of the founders of modern chemotherapy. In 1891, he developed a theory of the use of chemical compounds to fight infectious diseases.
Some time passed, and such compounds began to be obtained in laboratories by synthesis
The most widespread is the International Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC). In Russia, the division into Pharmacological groups is more common. In addition, there is also a nosological classification. In world practice, there is the concept of "non-prescription" and "prescription" drugs. The latter suggest a greater potential risk of over-the-counter use. There is a constant struggle between the “pharmaceutical” and “medical” lobbies (respectively, for the expansion of the 1st or 2nd group of drugs and the corresponding business).